Many ancient and medieval African cities had complex fortifications and other defensive systems. Infact the largest defensive systems that are known to Archaeologist are West African. The walls and moat system of Benin City(started 800 AD) tops the list, with a total length of over 1600 km, ‘four times the size of the Great wall of China’ according to Fred Pearce. Most of these forts have crumbled or been forgotten unfortunately.


This is a drawing of a smaller fort of Tiong-i over 100 years ago


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